Volume 20: Pages 42-45, 2007
Nuanced Relativity: The General Equation
Allen D. Allen 1
1CytoDyn, Inc., 1511 Third Street, Santa Fe, New Mexico 87505 U.S.A.
Nuanced relativity points to hν(c/ν)2as a general expression for the total energy of any wave‐particle. When ν = c, the total energy E is “naked”: hν. When ν < c, the total energy E is “dressed” by rest mass and is greater than hν by a factor of (c/ν)2. When E is “well dressed,” ν c, hν E, the dynamic Newtonian symmetry dT = ∫pdν = (1/2)mν2, where the indefinite integral ∫ denotes the antiderivative of its argument, accompanies the kinematic symmetry dx = ∫νxdt = (1/2)axt2. Rest energy is recognized as a form of potential energy V = m0c2. The Hamiltonian then gives the total energy as H = V + T = m0c2 + m0c2(γ − 1) = hν(c/ν)2.
Keywords: relativistic energy, rest mass, wave‐particle duality, dynamic and kinematic symmetry
Received: February 2, 2005; Published Online: January 8, 2009