Volume 22: Pages 86-103, 2009
Physics under space invariance
Shan-Noon Yie 1
1Electrical Engineering Department, Lee-Ming Institute of Technology, Taipei, Taiwan
To find the “Theory of Everything,” this paper follows the previous paper which suggests a new concept “Space Invariance” and builds the particle field functions to approach each result of quantum field theory through many ways while escaping from its problems. The efforts are done in three aspects. (A) Identify actions of space invariance on the fundamental laws of quantum field theory (QFT), such as Dirac’s equation, the scattering formula of quantum mechanics, transition rule, etc. Using such concepts, the inner structure of a particle may be reasonably explained; its results are analogous to that of Standard Model, such as that a quark has a baryon number of ⅓. Together with the previous summary, this paper suggests that neutral space has a base energy, say, a (as antineutrino), and includes two kinds of subspace: one outside the particle and the other inside the particle. Particles of both subspaces are constructed by various space components. (B) Build a nuclear model by particle field functions, demonstrated by the published data and contrasted by current theories. It leads to the following results: (1) Nucleus has a lattice structure. (2) The couplings of nucleons through particle field functions may have the shell model of magic number. (3) The phenomena of dipole, qradrupole, etc., of the nucleus may also well be deduced using these functions. (4) Neutron during scattering has a so-called virtual particle exchange and within in nucleus has a real particle exchange described by these functions. (5) Nuclear decay can be manifested through these functions. (C) Interpret the particles’ (including quarks’) interactions by these functions either the particles of very or ultra high energy, leading to the results: (1) the wave equation and the potential of the quark used in QFT may be well explained in a simple way; (2) these functions may show the energy exchange through the meson form during interaction; (3) these functions show the clues that beta decay in nucleon may be due to L(LS) interaction, pion decay may be due to T(LS) interaction, and W− decay may be due to T(S) interaction; (4) the deduction of these functions strongly suggests that field particles W± in weak interaction of heavy mass energy due to the electron of spin directly created in the particle as T(S) is exceedingly difficult; (5) quark of energy levels can be manifestly shown by particle field functions; and (6) the cross-section ratios from these functions in particles’ collision which produces quarks have more correct results and more reasonable explanation than that from current theory.
Keywords: Space Invariance, Standard Model, Quark, Identification, Scattering, Nucleus, Particle Field Function, Nuclear Structure, Lattice Structure, Coupling, Shell Model, Dipole Magnetic Moment, Decay, Particle Exchange, Resonance, Energy Transfer, Interaction, Meson, Cross Section, Weak Interaction, Theory of Everything
Received: June 11, 2007; Accepted: January 30, 2009; Published Online: March 11, 2009