19. Andrew Worsley, String quintessence and the formulation of advanced quantum gravity

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Volume 22: Pages 364-377, 2009)

String quintessence and the formulation of advanced quantum gravity

Andrew Worsley 1

1UHL, University of London, Lewisham High Street, London SE13 6LH, United Kingdom

Since the publication of the general theory of relativity (GTR), gravity has been described by classical field equations. Using this approach the GTR has resolved a number of problems in gravity, but is associated with some other difficulties. Mathematically GTR results in the formation of infinite density singularities in black holes, it challenges simultaneity and causality, and it is generally incompatible with quantum mechanics. A separate problem is the presence of “dark energy,” the energy inherent in space time. GTR helps explain this energy by the addition of a separate cosmological constant. However, what is required are formulas that treat the energy in space time as an integral part of quantum gravity. This space-time energy is treated as integral in the quintessence model, and may be resolvable by the use of a minimum energy scale. In this paper we use the standard minimal energy scale, Planck’s constant, and in turn define a new quintessence. Using this string quintessence, we obtain advanced quantum gravity (AQG), which technically agrees exactly with the GTR, in the range where the GTR has been widely tested. Additionally, the principle of relativity is also maintained, and advanced in order to restore simultaneity and causality. Moreover, using string quintessence, AQG resolves the difficulties related to singularities, and in turn explains the apparent presence of dark matter. The separate presence of dark energy can also be explained and is based directly on Planck’s constant and the minimal distance scale, the Planck length. Overall, in this paper, gravitation is taken to the next level, black holes and in turn dark matter are explained, and dark energy, the presence of space-time energy, becomes integral to the equations of AQG.

Keywords: Quantum Gravity, General Theory of Relativity, Quintessence, String Theory, Advanced Quantum Gravitation

Received: February 10, 2009; Accepted: June 26, 2009; Published Online: August 27, 2009