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Volume 12: Pages 204-220, 1999
Fundamentals of the Orbital Conception of Elementary Particles and of Their Application to the Neutron and Nuclear Structure
University of Barcelona, Applied Physics Department, Av. Diagonal, 647, E‐0828 Barcelona, Spain
An alternative approach to the standard model is outlined, motivated by the increasing theoretical and experimental difficulties encountered by this model, which furthermore fails to be unitary. In particular, the conceptual uneasiness generated by the excessive multiplicity of fundamental elements of the quark model—36 different quarks whose cohesion needs 8 different types of gluons—has logically led some physicists to propose a variety of quark substructures in an effort to reach unity. However, these hazardous attempts will without any doubt guide particle physics to fall into an abyss, in view of the already too highly dubious content of QCD. In order to avoid the forward escape corresponding to the attribution of a substructure to quarks and to stand away from the conceptual strangling to which the standard model has led, we have instead opted for different fundamentals. These, in contrast to those of the standard model, are extremely simple and based on the assumption of a single fundamental corpuscle, of dual manifestation as corpuscle and anticorpuscle, to which is always associated an orbital that determines the structure of particles. In such a frame particles differentiate through the diversity of quantum states of their structuring orbital, in contrast to the strategy used by the standard model based instead on the particle's multiplicity of composition through the variety of the quark's content, furthermore limited to hadrons. Instead the orbital conception of particles is unitary, unifying all of them as well as their interactions. As an outstanding feature, nuclear forces derive from the neutron orbital structure, based on a proton core and a shell. This shell constitutes the cohesive element of nuclear structure.
Keywords: elementary particles, orbital structure, unitary, nuclear interactions, electron, proton, neutron, nucleons, nuclides
Received: April 14, 1997; Published online: December 15, 2008