Volume 21: Pages 103-141, 2008
Exact classical quantum mechanical solution for atomic helium which predicts conjugate parameters from a unique solution for the first time
Randell L. Mills 1
1BlackLight Power, Inc., 493 Old Trenton Road, Cranbury, New Jersey 08512, USA
Quantum mechanics and quantum electrodynamics are often touted as the most successful theories ever. In this paper, this claim is critically evaluated by a test of internal consistency for the ability to calculate the conjugate observables of the nature of the free electron, ionization energy, elastic electron scattering, and the excited states of the helium atom using the same solution for each of the separate experimental measurements. It is found that in some cases quantum gives good numbers, but the solutions are meaningless numbers since each has no relationship to providing an accurate physical model. Rather, the goal is to mathematically reproduce an experimental or prior theoretical number using adjustable parameters including arbitrary wave functions in computer algorithms with precision that is often much greater (e.g., eight significant figures greater) than possible based on the propagation of errors in the measured fundamental constants implicit in the physical problem. Given the constraints of adherence to physical laws and internal consistency, an extensive literature search indicates that quantum mechanics has never solved a single physical problem correctly including the hydrogen atom and the next member of the periodic chart, the helium atom. Rather than using postulated unverifiable theories that treat atomic particles as if they were not real, physical laws are now applied to the same problem. In an attempt to provide some physical insight into atomic problems and starting with the same essential physics as Bohr of e− moving in the Coulombic field of the proton and the wave equation as modified after Schrödinger, a classical approach is explored which yields a model which is remarkably accurate and provides insight into physics on the atomic level. The proverbial view deeply seated in the wave-particle duality notion that there is no large-scale physical counterpart to the nature of the electron is shown not to be correct. Physical laws and intuition may be restored when dealing with the wave equation and quantum atomic problems. Specifically, a theory of classical quantum mechanics was derived from first principles as reported previously [R. Mills, The Grand Unified Theory of Classical Physics, June 2008 ed., posted at http://www.blacklightpower.com/theory/bookdownload.shtml; R. L. Mills, Int. J. Hydrogen Energy 27, 565 (2002); R. L. Mills, Phys. Essays 16, 433 (2003); 17, 342 (2004); 18, 321 (2005); 25, 225 (2006); R. Mills, “Physical Solutions of the Nature of the Atom, Photon, and Their Interactions to Form Excited and Predicted Hydrino States,” Phys. Essays, in press] that successfully applied physical laws to the solution of atomic problems that has its basis in a breakthrough in the understanding of the stability of the bound electron to radiation. Rather than using the postulated Schrödinger boundary condition: “Ψ→0 as r→∞,” which leads to a purely mathematical model of the electron, the constraint is based on experimental observation. Using Maxwell’s equations, the classical wave equation is solved with the constraint that the bound n=1-state electron cannot radiate energy. Although it is well known that an accelerated point particle radiates, an extended distribution, modeled as a superposition of accelerating charges, does not have to radiate. A simple invariant physical model arises naturally wherein the predicted results are extremely straightforward and internally consistent requiring minimal math as in the case of the most famous equations of Newton, Maxwell, Einstein, de Broglie, and Planck on which the model is based. No new physics is needed; only the known physical laws based on direct observation are used. The accurate solution of the helium atom is confirmed by the agreement of predicted and observed conjugate parameters using the same unique physical model in all cases.
Keywords: Theory, Free Electron, Helium Atom, Ionization Energy, Elastic Scattering, Excited States, Maxwell’s Equations, Conjugate Parameters, Internal Consistency
Received: June 15, 2007; Accepted: April 12, 2008; Published Online: January 15, 2009