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Volume 23: Pages 491-499, 2010

On the question of gauge invariance in physics and Einstein’s covariance principle

C. Y. Lo 1

1Applied & Pure Research Institute, 7 Taggart Drive, Unit E, Nashua, New Hampshire 03060, USA

It is pointed out that all the gauge theories in physics actually are not gauge invariant. Calculation of the deflection angle to the second order shows that general relativity is also not gauge invariant since the shortest distance from the Sun center is different for each gauge. Further, different “de Sitter” precession formulas of the first order are obtained for different gauges. Thus, Einstein’s covariance principle is intrinsically invalid. This invalidity would imply also that Einstein’s theory of measurement is invalid, since his covariance principle is the remedy for his theory of measurement. Nevertheless, since the Maxwell–Newton approximation has been proven as the first order of a physical metric, the second order approximation of deflection angle can be obtained from measuring the shortest distance from the Sun center. Concurrently, it is shown that the so-called “genuinely measurable quantities,” which could be used to make gauge invariant measurements, actually do not exist. As shown in the 1993 press release of the Nobel Committee, many still do not understand Einstein’s equivalence principle. Validity of the harmonic metric to the first order and validity of Einstein’s equivalence principle can be directly tested by measuring the local light speeds.

Keywords: Einstein’s Equivalence Principle, Euclidean-Like Structure, Covariance Principle, Bending of Light, Physical Gauge

Received: February 25, 2009; Accepted: June 24, 2010; Published Online: August 4, 2010