Volume 23: Pages 451-458, 2010
The universe via continuum creation and annihilation
Nikiforos Ierokomos 1
1105 Cherryville Hollow Road, Flemington, New Jersey 08822, USA
Possible candidates have been identified and quantities have been calculated for the present epoch dark energy density ρDE 7.08×10−30 g cm−3, dark matter 2.12×10−30 g cm3, and baryonic matter density 3.87×10−31 g/cm3. These components make up 73.8%, 22.1%, and 4.1%, respectively, of total critical mass density. These are calculated parameters and are compared with published values based on observations that are approximated as 74%, 22%, and 4%, respectively. These calculated values are based on a cosmology hypothesis developed decades ago. This is an evolutionary universe via phase changes and symmetry breaks via a concept of continuum creation and annihilation. The dark energy is identified as the continuum itself, while the dark matter is identified as “different” (nonannihilating with baryons) antimatter states with a rest mass of approximately 1.824×10−23 g. Observations that can substantiate these proposed concepts are identified as they exist or are proposed. The behavior and values of the Hubble parameter is also affected by these defined dark energy and matter characteristics. From the geometry considered, a minimum age for the universe is taken as the NASA WMAP based value of 13.7×109 year and is used to define a size of “consequence” of the universe that determines the given total values of the cosmic parameters. The calculations for the above components also utilize the number density of 0.24 nucleons/m3 as given from the theory of nucleosynthesis.
Keywords: Dark Energy, Dark Matter, Particles and Cosmology, Physics of the Early Universe
Received: April 2, 2007; Accepted: May 29, 2010; Published Online: July 2, 2010