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Volume 23: Pages 383-387, 2010

Proportional expansion of the universe and quasi-Newtonian dynamics

Ned S. Rasor 1

115601 Montebello Road, Cupertino, California 95014-5404, USA

It is shown that the proportional expansion rate of the universe and its contents, except for nonexpanding electron orbital structures, is observed to be universal for systems over a 1041 range in size, in accord with the Einstein general relativity equations. This includes the observed expansion rate of the radii of nucleons, neutron stars, the lunar orbit, Earth’s orbit, and galaxies at a rate proportional to the Hubble expansion rate of the universe itself. The anomalous observed rate of increase in the lunar orbit eccentricity is also consistent with this universal expansion rate. An analytical formulation of quasi-Newtonian dynamics, intermediate between Newtonian and modified Newtonian dynamics, is verified by astronomical observations over the redshift interval 0<z<1.6.

Keywords: Proportional Expansion, Universe, Non-Newtonian Dynamics, Galaxies, Neutron Stars

Received: December 30, 2009; Accepted: April 30, 2010; Published Online: May 27, 2010