8. Chester J. Marcinkowski,

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Volume 11: Pages 541-562, 1998

Wavelength Radiated by Aging Starlight

Chester J. Marcinkowski

113 Sargent Drive, Snyder, New York 142264066 U.S.A.

A thermodynamic approach is used to calculate the EM wavelength radiated by an averageaged photon of starlight with wavelength λa                          1.76 μm and energy wa = hc/λa. A needleshaped photon volume V is estimated partly from previous work to give a photon energy density ua = wa/V. The surface temperature Ta of this photon model is deduced by applying the standard thermodynamic relation ua = aTa4, where the constant a is known. The result is a photon surface temperature Ta  3 K for an averageaged photon of starlight. This aging photon is assumed to radiate roughly like a blackbody. Another thermodynamic relation then provides a most likely radiated frequency vm (and hence radiated photon energy) at the peak of the blackbody spectrum. The resulting wavelength is λm  0.510/Ta  0.2 cm. The corresponding wavelength of the cosmic microwave radiation is λm″   0.187 cm. This suggests that some portion of the cosmic microwave radiation might be produced by aging photons of starlight. A survey is made of the evidence favoring the photon as a needleshaped object.

Keywords: cosmic microwave radiation, Hubble constant, redshift, photons, cosmology, electromagnetic theory

Received: December 4, 1997; Published online: December 15, 2008