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Volume 12: Pages 11-33, 1999
White Holes and Their Possible Connection with Quarks and Nuclear Forces—An Application to the Deuteron Ground State
Nikiforos A. Sideris
P.P.Germanou str. No 26, Halandri T.K. 152 33, Greece
The main purpose of this paper is to find a connection that might relate the u and d quarks with the concept of “white holes.” The idea that led to this investigation is the following: It is known that the up to this time proposed potentials for the two‐nucleon system (square‐well and Hamanda‐Johnston potentials and other types of phenomenological potentials), regard the observed strong repulsive forces that develop when the nucleons approach each other at distances less than 0.5 fm, as being due to a “hard‐core” or “impenetrable‐sphere” potential, which is usually set at V = ∞ for r ≤ 0.5 fm. Due to the lack of a definite answer about the nature of these repulsive forces, we were led to the idea that a solution to this problem could be found if it was possibile to ascribe repulsive forces to the quarks that are confined inside the nucleons. These forces should present three basic features: (i) They increase when the distance between the nucleons decreases, (ii) They are of very short range. (iii) They can be placed in an existing physical frame. The only frame we found suitable to play the required role was the concept of white holes, which, according to our opinion, are the only ones that can generate repulsive central forces of nonelectromagnetic nature (since they affect both protons and neutrons) in the region under discussion (≤ 0.5 fm). In this paper we shall give a very short account of the connection between white holes and quarks; a full justification will be presented in another paper. The application of a semiphenomenological potential that contains a repulsive term due to the repulsion between quarks to the case of the deuteron ground state will reveal many unexpected outcomes, which (i) are in agreement with experimental results and (ii) present new information about the role of certain (spin‐0) mesons in the development of nuclear forces.
Keywords: white holes, repulsive Yukawa‐type potential, deuteron, spin‐O mesons
Received: November 23, 1994; Published online: December 15, 2008