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Volume 23: Pages 388-404, 2010)

Gravitation Photons Universe

Maciej B. Szymanski 1

110 Coles Court, Halton Hills, Ontario L7J2L8, Canada

The general relativity–Big Bang model has been widely accepted as the standard model of the universe. The model still is evolving, and its conceptual and mathematical complexities are increasing. The objective of this discussion is to present alternatives to the general relativity and the Big Bang model. These are formulated from logical rather than mathematical arguments. A law of gravitation is postulated, which leads to a modification of Newton’s gravity force equation. A fundamental constant is estimated from the Mercury perihelion discrepancy, and quantitative predictions of the range of gravitational interactions and the accuracy of Galileo’s equivalence principle are then made. The structure of the universe is deduced from the law of gravitation, the cosmological principle, and the law of mass conservation. Cosmological considerations lead to a photon mass conjecture. Applying the second law of thermodynamics to mass also implies massive photon. This allows for proving the constancy of the speed of light when subject to gravitation. From these considerations, a conceptual model of nonexpanding universe is derived.

Keywords: Fundamental Law of Nature, Gravitation, Mass, Photon, Speed of Light, Universe

Received: June 28, 2009; Accepted: May 6, 2010; Published Online: June 14, 2010