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Volume 16: Pages 155-161, 2003
Quantum References: The Determination of a Zero Point in Quantum Systems
2203 Clymer‐Sherman Rd., Clymer, New York 14724 U.S.A.
Heisenberg's microscope experiment for the determination of the position of an electron is fundamentally flawed because it does not define position in four dimensions as an event in space‐time. To rectify this the microscope is substituted by an ideal radar system situated at the origin of a coordinate system, thereby defining a reference system. It is then demonstrated that the origin and resulting coordinate points have a minimum uncertainty due to the physical extension of the photon in space‐time. Further analysis reveals that quantum mechanics may be characterized in general as the study of material processes for which the spatial extension of the photon must be taken into account.
Keywords: reference system, coordinate system, configuration space, uncertainty, indeterminacy, photon, microscope experiment, zero point, spatial extension
Received: April 27, 1998; Published online: December 15, 2008