Volume 20: Pages 403-460, 2007
Physical Solutions of the Nature of the Atom, the Photon, and Their Interactions to Form Excited and Predicted Hydrino States
Randell L. Mills 1
1BlackLight Power, Inc., 493 Old Trenton Road, Cranbury, New Jersey 08512 U.S.A.
Starting with the same essential physics as Bohr, Schrödinger, and Dirac of e− moving in the Coulombic field of the proton and the wave equation of motion having a corresponding Laplacian energy equation as originally sought by Schrödinger, advancements in the understanding of the stability of the bound electron to radiation are applied to solve for the exact nature of the electron. Rather than using the postulated Schrödinger boundary condition Ψ → 0 as r → ∞, which leads to a purely mathematical model of the electron, the constraint is based on experimental observation. Using Maxwell's equations, the classical wave equation is solved with the constraint that the bound (n = 1)‐state electron cannot radiate energy. Although it is well known that an accelerated point particle radiates, an extended distribution modeled as a superposition of accelerating charges does not have to radiate. A simple invariant physical model obeying the two‐dimensional wave equation plus time arises naturally wherein the results are extremely straightforward, internally consistent, and predictive of conjugate parameters for the first time, requiring minimal math as in the case of the most famous exact equations (no uncertainty) of Newton, Maxwell, Einstein, de Broglie, and Planck on which the model is based. No new physics is needed; only the known physical laws based on direct observation are used. Together with the solution of the nature of the photon, many problems are solved uniquely and exactly in closed‐form equations involving fundamental constants only, such as the ionization energies of multi‐electron atoms, the excited states of hydrogen and helium, the anomalous magnetic moment of the electron, the Lamb shift, the fine structure and hyperfine structure of the hydrogen atom, the hyperfine‐structure intervals of positronium and muonium, the photon, inelastic electron scattering from helium, and the nature of the chemical bond. Beyond revealing the physics of known results, new states of the hydrogen atom are predicted in Section 2 that extend the Rydberg series to lower levels. A large body of experimental evidence supports the predictions. Several departures from the nonphysical methodology of standard quantum mechanics are used and some results that were missed or were not anticipated by critics [A. Rathke, New J. Phys. 7, 127 (2005)] are given in detail in this paper: (1) the nonradiation condition requires that the three‐dimensional wave equation plus time be reduced to the two‐dimensional wave equation plus time corresponding to a radial Dirac delta function; this boundary constraint was missed by Rathke, and Rathke's errors in this wave equation and analysis of the angular solutions were identified; (2) the electron is not a point‐particle probability wave; rather it is a two‐dimensional membrane of charge, mass, and current, and the de Broglie wavelength arises from first principles rather than a postulated wave‐particle duality; nothing is waving, in contradiction to Rathke's misunderstanding; (3) in the bound state the current is perpendicular to the radius such that it obeys the two‐dimensional wave equation; yet it is relativistically invariant (ħ is a Lorentz scalar), in contradiction to Rathke's claims; (4) using the solved two‐dimensional nature of the electron, the radii and the energies of the n = 1 and excited states of the hydrogen atom are solved from a force balance between the field of the electron and that of the nucleus plus any photons of excited states, in contradiction to Rathke's claims; (5) the central field of trapped photons given by Maxwell's equations that superimposes the proton's field can be positive or negative to increase as well as decrease the binding energy of the electron; (6) in contradiction to Rathke's claims, the latter case corresponds to excited states wherein the central field is a reciprocal integer times that of the proton, and the corresponding radii are each an integer times that of the n = 1 state, and the former case corresponds to predicted hydrino states wherein the field is an integer times that of the proton and the corresponding radii are each a reciprocal integer times that of the n = 1 state; and (7) based on Maxwell's equations, the excited states involve photons directly and the hydrino states require a first nonradiative energy transfer to a catalyst followed by a radiative or resonant energy transfer, in contradiction to Rathke's speculation.
Keywords: Maxwell's equations, nonradiation, quantum theory, special and general relativity, particle masses, cosmology, wave equation
Received: May 26, 2006; Published Online: May 26, 2009