1. Moshe Wallace Callen, Large-scale CP violation from cosmic acceleration: Completing the analogy between gauge and reference frame transformations and its physical consequences

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Volume 22: Pages 1-16, 2009

Large-scale CP violation from cosmic acceleration: Completing the analogy between gauge and reference frame transformations and its physical consequences

Moshe Wallace Callen 1

1c/o Dr. Harry Gelman, Department of Physics and Engineering Programs, University of Massachusetts Boston, 100 Morrissey Boulevard, Boston, Massachusetts 02215-3393, USA

This discussion demonstrates a theorem that, if some hypothetical metric gαβ for either field-space or spacetime exists which couples to spin-½ field/particles, one can define a class of four-indexed spin-½ fields                         α(x) with which the standard model SU(3)×SU(2)×U(1) gauge group is automatically associated due to topological and geometric considerations, regardless of the nature of the field equation by which any specific field α(x) is defined. Specifically, for this class of fields α(x), which reduces to a physically equivalent unindexed field (x) in flat space where the metric gαβ reduces to the Minkowski metric ηαβ, gauge transformations become exactly identified with covariant transformations under general reference frame transformations. This identification is used to construct a novel source of CP violation which may help to explain the degree to which the symmetry between matter and antimatter observed in the universe is broken.

Keywords: CP-violation, Yang–Mills Theory, Standard Model in Curved Spacetime, Gauge Transformations, Covariant Transformations, Reference Frame Transformations, Dirac Equation

Received: October 29, 2007; Accepted: November 25, 2008; Published Online: February 19, 2009