Volume 23: Pages 320-325, 2010
A new theory to explain the variation of specific heat of solid elements at lower temperatures and behavior of real gases
Kunwar Jagdish Narain 1
1Department of Physics, Govt. Bilasa Girls P.G. (Autonomous) College, Bilaspur (C.G.) 495001, India
The specific heat of solid elements (Cv) varies at lower temperatures, which means that there is some causes as to why it happens. Hence finding out that cause, presently a new theory has been proposed to explain the variation of their specific heat. The cause is that out of heat energy, subjected to increase the temperature of the substance, some part is drawn by the orbiting electrons of the atoms of the substance to furnish work against their binding force in order to excite them from their energy state E1 to energy state E2. Consequently, the temperature of the substance is not being increased to the amount to which it would have increased if no heat energy was drawn by the orbiting electrons. The emission of energy hν(=E2−E1) in the form of a photon from an excited orbiting electron, before its transition from energy state E2 to E1, confirms that the orbiting electrons draw some heat energy for their excitations. In order to verify the truth of this cause, evidence has also been given from a well-established existing knowledge. The present theory explains the so far unexplained variation of critical coefficient and critical volume of gases from gas to gas too. Using the present theory, the equation of state proposed by van der Waals has been modified, and critical coefficients and critical volumes have been calculated for some of the gases, which vary from gas to gas in accordance with the experimentally observed values.
Keywords: Specific Heat of Solid Elements, Equation of State for Real Gases, Critical Volume, Critical Temperature, Critical Pressure, Critical Coefficient
Received: January 4, 2009; Accepted: March 25, 2010; Published Online: April 29, 2010