9. V. Arunasalam, Superfluid Quasi Photons in the Early Universe

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Volume 15: Pages 101-112, 2002

Superfluid Quasi Photons in the Early Universe

V. Arunasalam

50 Windsor Drive, Princeton Junction, New Jersey 08550 U.S.A.

From the point of view of the wellknown laws of the special theory of relativity, the classical and quantum theories of vacuum electromagnetic fields, and statistical thermodynamics, it is shown that the newly born inflationary universe is an extremely high density and high temperature neutral matterantimatter plasma with perfect matterantimatter symmetry full of quasiphoton gas due to pair production and buildup of blackbody radiation. The “bare” photons in vacuum gooverasthe “dressed” quasi photons in the plasmon field of the matterantimatter plasma. Each “bare” photon is “dressed” with a single plasmon to form a quasi photon. These quasi photons, being nonzeromass bosons, will undergo BoseEinstein (BE) condensation at the appropriate superfluid condensation temperature T0. Thus, the early inflationary bigbang universe, after cooling through the spontaneous symmetrybreaking phase transition for the Higgs fields around T ≈ 1027 K, must then cool through the superfluid quasiphoton BE phase transitions, first in the pairproduced baryonantibaryon plasmas around 1016 ≥ T ≈ T0 ≥ 1014 K, and then in the pairproduced leptonantilepton plasmas around 1012 ≥ T ≈ T0 ≥ 1011 K. A few other relevant problems regarding the physical properties of photons and quasi photons are also discussed.

Keywords: superfluid quasi photons, early universe, BoseEinstein condensation, photon mass, matterantimatter plasmas, baryonantibaryon plasmas, leptonantilepton plasmas, relativistic plasmas, pairproduction thresholds, dressed quasi photons, quasiphoton mass, ultrarelativistic plasmas

Received: August 24, 1999; Published online: December 15, 2008